The classic Plato essay on the apology of Socrates. The essay is a great primer to the basic ideas of practicing philosophical thought.
Younger Wittgenstein's main work on language, logic and how to practice philosophy.
A great introduction to the dual processing theories of cognition by one of the leading theorists in the field.
One of the more debated and contested arguments in the philosophy of the mind by two prominent present day philosophers.
Kant's preamble to his main work, Critique of Pure Reason, the latter which single-handedly redefined the Western tradition of philosophical thinking.
One of the "big three" in American pragmatism, William James outlines here the cornerstones of the philosophical school of thought.
A ground-shaking paper from the lesser known Harvard pragmatist C.I. Lewis.
Aristotle's classic text that is the foundation of much of later epistemological and metaphysical thinking.
First chapter of Thomas Kuhn's classic and groundbreaking analysis of scientific progress.
Donald Davidson's insightful paper challenging some of the ideas concerning conceptual schemes and introducing his important principle of charity.
A classic Sherlock Holmes short story. Holmes is a great archetype of the scientific method in how he employs logic and empirical evidence to draw very powerful inferences.
The second chapter from Aristotle's classic work on ethics where he defines virtue.