8. Citing images in dissertations

Images can be reproduced without permission and compensation as a citation for a critical or scientific non-commercial presentation (dissertation, university publication, teaching material, learning exercise) on the following conditions: (see detailed instructions in the VRC guide)

  • The images have a connection to the presentation (e.g. the image is discussed in the text of a dissertation) and so the image is not used only for decorative purposes
  • The image may be a photograph, drawing, image of an artwork, image from music notation, graph or other illustration etc.
  • Small editorial changes can be made into the images
  • The images are cited appropriately; creator, title, date, source such URL, etc.
  • The image is taken from a legal source; it is made public with the permission of the rights holder and made available publically (remember source criticism) 
  • Read the use permissions of each image carefully; large image databases contain material with varied permissions
  • The terms and conditions stated by a database, image collection or other material owner should be respected; e.g. is citing or sharing online specifically prohibited
  • When possible it is recommended to use CC-licensed material as the use permissions are clearly defined and they can be shared more openly
  • If you wish to use material in a way that exceeds the terms of citation, or if use permissions forbid the intended use, permission can be sought from the copyright holder for instance by email

Image: Requirements for using images in a thesis. Learning Centre, Visual Resources Centre. (CC-BY)