Please note! Course description is confirmed for two academic years, which means that in general, e.g. Learning outcomes, assessment methods and key content stays unchanged. However, via course syllabus, it is possible to specify or change the course execution in each realization of the course, such as how the contact sessions are organized, assessment methods weighted or materials used.


After the course the student can

- describe the fundamental sub-processes in the oxidation and reduction processes, their driving forces and constraints, including transport phenomena.

- understand the features of heterogeneous reactions at elevated temperatures, such as slag-matte-metal-gas systems, surface phenomena and fundamentals of fluxing.

- is able to explain the principles of essential pyrometallurgical laboratory techniques and understand the role of experimental work on process development.

- can design and conduct experiments for studying different phenomena at elevated temperatures.

Credits: 5

Schedule: 07.01.2025 - 07.04.2025

Teacher in charge (valid for whole curriculum period):

Teacher in charge (applies in this implementation): Marko Kekkonen

Contact information for the course (applies in this implementation):

CEFR level (valid for whole curriculum period):

Language of instruction and studies (applies in this implementation):

Teaching language: English. Languages of study attainment: English


  • valid for whole curriculum period:

    This course goes deeper into metals production processes concentrating on chemical and physical phenomena in the unit process level - the main processes and constraints taking place in the metallurgical operations at elevated temperatures are considered. The emphasis is on oxidation and reduction processes, as well as on surface phenomena and multiphase phenomena (e.g. melting/dissolution, reaction, transport and solidification phenomena) in slag-metal gas-solid systems. In addition some experimental research techniques for studying phenomena at elevated temperatures are introduced and experiments as well as data analysis will be carried out.

Assessment Methods and Criteria
  • valid for whole curriculum period:

    - Compulsory laboratory exercise(s) and Report

    - Written examination

  • valid for whole curriculum period:

    5 cr = 135 h

    Design of experiments
    Laboratory work
    Independent studies



Study Material
  • valid for whole curriculum period:

    Seshadri Seetharaman (ed.): Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Vol. 1 and 2 (selected chapters), 2014, Elsevier; Lecture notes and additional material distributed on the lectures.

Substitutes for Courses
SDG: Sustainable Development Goals

    4 Quality Education

    9 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    12 Responsible Production and Consumption

    13 Climate Action


Further Information
  • valid for whole curriculum period:

    Teaching Language: English

    Teaching Period: 2024-2025 Spring III - IV
    2025-2026 Spring III - IV