Vector Network Analysis
In this section we will have a closer look at how vector network analysers operate, incl. the important skill of correctly calibrating a VNA.
Lecture on vector analysis instrumentation and measurement procedures
This is the 1st lesson test of this course and it is on the topic Vector network analysis.
Prepare for the lesson test by reading Section 5.4, namely pages 101-121 in the main course book before the lecture. In essence Chapter 5 describes in great detail what components make up a vector network analyser (VNA) and how it generally operates. You do not need to memorise any details, but remember the main functional blocks inside a VNA and related to this you should be able to explain why a VNA in fact needs to be calibrated before every measurement that you perform with it (while e.g. a spectrum analyser does not need to be constantly calibrated). Additionally, the attached Application Note by Keysight (10 p.), the VNA Primer by Rohde&Schwarz (pp. 4-16), as well as Section 2.6 in the third text book summarise the general VNA architecture very nicely.
This lesson test is held during the contact session. First, answer all the questions individually within 10 minutes. Then (after the lecture), the teacher will assign you to breakout rooms in Zoom where you answer the same questions again in small groups, and you choose one group member who puts the answers, i.e. you need to agree on the answers (this second attemp will not count unless done as a group). With the (second) "group" attempt students can improve their evaluation by up to 50 % of the points available in the first attempt, i.e. the assessment weight of the first attempt is two thirds, and of the group attempt one third (for this lesson test).
The goal of this additional homework assignment is to be able to explain some of the typical systematic error sources in any VNA, namely those that relate to the finite directivity of the internal couplers, especially across a wide frequency band.
- Application Note on Exploring the Architectures of Network Analyzers by Keysight Technologies
Introduction to Vector Network Analysis by Rohde&Schwarz
In case you are interested in looking into a VNA along with an extensive explanation, enjoy this external video (only optional)!