Topic outline

  • The pre-exam opens at 10:15 and closes at 12:00 on Wed, September 29th, 2021.

    The exam consists of four essay-type questions. You are free to navigate between the questions and update your answers during the whole time the exam is running. Each question is its own assignment; you can save and edit your answers as many times as you want, as long as you have not submitted them. After you save your answer to a question, you will be shown a screen where you can formally submit your answer. Please remember to submit your answers before noon when the exam closes!

    Write your answer in the space provided. Unfortunately, you cannot draw pictures using the system, but feel free to refer to the figures in the reading, link figures from the net, or upload your own as you see fit. Please note that you are not required to add pictures to receive a perfect score on the exam.

    The exam is an open book exam - you are allowed to use both the readings provided, as well as any other source you can find. However, you must write your answer in your own words, and by yourself. We will run plagiarism checkers on all your answers, and in case we find large amounts of copied text from the course material, or other sources, you will fail the exam. We will also check for similarities between the answers of different students.

    You are not allowed to communicate with other students taking the exam while doing it
    . That is, no collaboration is allowed during the exam.

    If you run into problems or have questions during the exam, please send an email to Casper at

    Good luck!